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高考英語復習:運用上下文和構詞法猜詞

http://www.enorth.com.cn  2008-04-21 10:23
 

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  南開中學段勝利

  例三『It」s important to let children experience the reality of death, if it can be done in an atmosphere of love and caring. A child whose sibling, parent or grandparent is seriously ill can be made to feel helpful by being allowed to run errands(跑腿). Even a very young child can comfort a sick loved one with a cheering visit.』

  Judging from the passage, the underlined word 『sibling』 in the paragraph probably means .

  A. friend B. brother or sister

  C. cousin D. relative

  答案B。猜測sibling這個詞時,需要注意它是與parent or grandparent一起羅列出來的,這是通過列舉歸納的方法來猜測詞義的很好的例子。sibling, parent or grandparent都與孩子有親屬關系,從這樣的列舉我們不難推斷sibling應當是『兄弟姐妹』。

  例四Johnson looked like a man wanted in Los Angeles for robbery, so the police detained him at San Pedro for the night.The next day, Johnson telephoned his friends in Los Angeles. They drove to San Pedro and made the police believe that Johnson was a harmless salesman, so they set him free.

  The underlined word 『detained』 probably means __________.

  A. caught B. controlled

  C. kept D. hurt

  答案C。detained前面出現了a man wanted(被通緝的人),the police(警察局);它的下面又出現了at San Pedro for the night(在San Pedro過一夜),綜合分析上下文的信息,應當是拘留,也就是用kept一詞,注意不能用caught,這是個動作動詞,表示『逮著了』,但不能說『逮著了一夜』。

  例五Jacob Blitzstein surprised his fellow students all the time. He isn」t some stuffy guy, though he wears his neat gray beard and conservative (traditional) clothes.

  The word 『stuffy』 in the paragraph means _______.

  A. old-fashioned

  B. respectable

  C. narrow-minded

  D. fat

  答案A。stuffy後面有一個though引導的讓步狀語從句,說明出現了反義信息,但是stuffy前面又有not,說明stuffy就是wears his neat gray beard and conservative (traditional) clothes傳遞出的信息,因此選擇old-fashioned『傳統的,守舊的』。

  例六If left to himself, he would have whistled ( 吹口哨) life away in perfect satisfaction; but his wife was always mad at him for his idleness (懶散). Morning, noon, and night, her tongue was endlessly going, so that he was forced to escape to the outside of the house ——the only side which, in truth, belongs to a henpecked husband.

  The underlined words 『henpecked husband』 in the paragraph probably means a man who______.

  A. likes hunting

  B. is afraid of hens

  C. loves his wife

  D. is afraid of his wife

  答案D。henpecked husband是通過前文事例,最後做出的歸納。進行猜詞時,要分析文段所描述的人物特點:自己待著,無拘無束,其樂融融;而他的妻子卻總會為他的懶散而惱怒,整天嘮叨他,結果他不得已跑出家去。這種表現明顯的是『氣管炎』,怕老婆。(未完待續)

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